*****Respond to at least two colleagues who selected a different theory of intelligence and offer additional support, using a strengths perspective.
Colleague 1: Katreasa
Intelligence / Moral development
I believe intelligence relates to moral development at birth. When an infant conform to a routine due to positive gratification, conformed knowledge is displayed thus intelligence is noted. I believe trust is an important factor in developmental of habit. I believe habit is the development of intelligence. Once a certain level of trust is apparent during growth and development, it provides developmental morals. Once conformity is displayed intelligence is noted. According to Robbins, Chatterjee, and Canda (2012), culture prioritize certain intelligences through intercultural interaction, shape the priorities and expressions of other cultures (p. 274). Rational and emotional intelligence assist in the individual choices of self control and motivation in regards to moral development. Social interaction assist in the formation of both areas of intelligence is displayed rationally and emotionally when triggered (Robbins et al, 2012).
Theory of choice
The theory of intelligence I selected in a strength perspective is the theory of emotional intelligence. Within this theory the development of ones own ability to rationally and emotionally understand is indicated and I see this as a positive defense mechanism that prevent over reaction (Robbins et al., 2012). Emotional strength of intelligence theory that was proposed by Daniel Goleman assisted in the implementation of self control (Robbins et al., 2012).
Social Work implication
The potential implication of this theory in regard to social work is based on recognizing emotions in others. This is one area that social workers utilize in approach and engagement. The development of emotional literacy is important when managing the emotions of others. This is displayed in the social work profession when addressing and preventing depression and violence that exist within society (Robbins et al., 2012).
Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E.R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon
Colleague 2: Aimee
Intelligence and how it relates to moral development
According to Lovecky, (as cited in Termini, Golden, Lyndon, and Sheafer, 2009) “morality develops early in life, (1997). Intelligence can be seen in the development of morality by way of emotional intelligence, more specifically, one’s ability to regulate their own emotions. Theories of moral development are closely tied to the development of maturity in cognitive capacities during childhood and adolescence, (Robbins, Chatterjee, and Canda, 2012). According to Robbins et. al, research is constantly trying to find the “connections between genetic determinants of behavior as well as the neurochemical brain processes that give rise to cognition” (2012, p. 285). A connection can be seen in the way a child progresses through child development in their ability to make life sustaining choices, such as good versus evil.
JAMES W. FOWLER’S THEORY OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT
Fowler’s theory of faith development is closely related to the development of morality in that it is widely believed and universal. Faith can be interpreted differently and uniquely by individuals. There is not one specific faith belief. Faith holds its own beliefs values and meaning for each person and gives relativity and meaning to the individual. Robbins et. al states, “evaluation of a person’s faith development does not involve judgment of any particular beliefs or religious affiliations; faith can be expressed either inside or outside of religious institutional contexts” (p. 283).
A strengths perspective approach
The strengths perspective looks at all individual’s ability to solve their own problems using themselves as the cure. Finding the smallest pebble of hope in their daily lives can enable an individual to overcome, much like faith. Someone can place their faith in an idea which will help the individual center themselves and find a way to overcome the challenges in their life. In social work practice, we can use the strengths perspective to aid someone in finding their faith. I don’t mean just religious faith but what they truly believe in and what can help them overcome their obstacles the individual is facing.
Potential implications of this theory for social workers who need to assess the intelligence of clients.
A strength of Fowler’s theory is that it focuses on the levels of faith that individuals operate at. This theory is beneficial in working with individuals who are struggling to understand the role that faith or spirituality plays in their lives. In assessing where a client falls in developing their faith, a social worker can see where they are falling per their moral development. A limitation of Fowler’s theory is can be seen in stages that individuals are said to move through. The stages may have too much focus on the age groups that each stage is associated with and there can be great variation between individuals and where they are in their developmental processes (Robbins et. al, 2012). In assessing a client’s intelligence, the social worker would need to first ascertain what stage of Fowler’s theory the client is in. This can, therefore, be a challenge as the levels of variations which can be seen throughout the levels.
Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Termini, K., Golden, J. A., Lyndon, A. E., & Sheaffer, B. L. (2009). Reactive attachment disorder and cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions of moral development. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 15(1), 18–28.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
******Respond to two of your colleagues’ posts by supporting or challenging the selected medication for treatment. If a post already has two responses, you must choose another post. Be sure to support your response with specific references from your research or from the Learning Resources.
Colleague 1: Dawn
The Use of Stimulants in the Treatment ADHD
The client’s current presence in the media program was hyper her current state she talks very fast without pausing, fidgety and impulsivity touching all the figures on the table. First, a behavior assessment system for a child should be complete for ADHD this scale is a rating system for the diagnoses before treating with medication (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). If a medication needs to be prescribed by the psychiatrist one might prescribe Adderall to treat (ADHD) Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Nida, 2014). This medication should work efficacy but also safe for the adolescent (Pliszka, 2007). Intended effects Adderall help people who take this medication has an effect to focus and have claiming results (Nida, 2014). Dopamine levels help neurotransmitters increase when taking this medication (Nida, 2014). There are continual resales of dopamine and the medication is given until there is therapeutic effect enough to help (Nida, 2014). Although these medications are intended to help there are some side effects such as raising blood pressure and increasing someone’s heart rate (Nida, 2014). There also can be a major risk for addiction to the medication (Nida, 2014). This medication might be the most effective for treatment because it decreases the symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder which most people want to go away. It helps people to concrete and control impulses (Carter, 2016).
How you might address related problems when it comes to the use of stimulants for the treatment of ADHD Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder do not prescribe the medication for longer than necessary. Only prescribe the medication if necessary and do not prescribe to someone who may be more likely to become addictive. An alternative approach to treating ADHD is behavior therapy instead of prescribing medication first try this therapy to change unwanted behaviors and reinforce good behavior (Hanning, 2016).
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/index.aspx
Carter. C, (2016). Adderall vs. Ritalin: What’s the Difference? Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/adderall-vs-ritalin#overview1
Hanning. J, (2016).The Different Approaches to ADHD Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.learningsuccessblog.com/blog/attention-deficit-disorder-addadhd/best-adhd-doctors
Colleague 2: Sherri
Parents like Juniors are often concerned about the long-term use and side effects of medication that are commonly prescribed. Author Pellow, Solomon, & Barnard state, “ADHD affects up to 1 in 20 children in the United States” (2011). In the beginning Junior’s parents report that the dextroamphetamine was helping him stay focused and providing him relief, but then after six weeks they report he built up a tolerance and the physician then upped the dosage. Many neurological and biochemical anomalies seem to have a correlation with ADHD. Research quoted by Pellow, Solomon, & Barnard says, “The biochemical etiology of ADHD has been postulated to be related to low levels of catecholamines (namely epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and serotonin in certain areas of the brain. These neurotransmitters are responsible for activating the areas of the brain needed for focus and concentration.” (2009)
Pellow, Solomon, & Barnard also authored, “The three major classes of drugs used include stimulant medications, non-stimulants, and antidepressant medications.* Stimulant drugs, such as methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin® and Concerta®), are structurally similar to and mimic the action of norepinephrine and dopamine” (2009). Coleman, Steinberg, & Tippet found in one study that, “Vitamin B6 facilitates the production of serotonin, and supplementation with vitamin B6 has been shown to increase serotonin levels and reduce hyperactivity in ADHD” (1979). One alternative would be to monitor a healthy diet and have bloodwork by a physician to see if the child is low/deficient in a vitamin. Prescription stimulant misuse and abuse can happen with teens populations. Junior seems to not be taking the medication as prescribed this needs to be addressed as he is displaying paranoia, weight loss, hostility, mood swings, hallucinations, and pills are missing from the bottle routinely. This needs to be taken serious as dextroamphetamine increases heart rate which can lead to a stroke or heart attack.
Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: A review. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123–142.
Coleman M, Steinberg G, Tippett J, et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: a double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psychiatry 1979;14:741-751.
Document: ADHD Stimulant Addiction Case Study: Junior (PDF)
Lichtblau, L. (2011). Psychopharmacology demystified. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.
****each response needs to b at least ½ page in length wth 2 or more references*****
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