Get college assignment help at uniessay writers The figure below shows a cognitive map capturing understanding of the drivers of algal blooms in an inland river. The system could also be described using a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) flow moderate weak nutrients turbidity -moderate strong -strong algal bloom (a) What steps are required to convert this cognitive map into a BBN? (five marks)
Fitbit, Inc., in 2017: Can Revive Its Strategy and It Reverse Mounting Losses? connect ROCHELLE R. BRUNSON Baylor University MARLENE M. REED Baylor University in the number of devices sold. The company sold only 2,956 devices in the first quarter of 2017 compared to 4,842 during the first quarter of 2016. Correspond- ingly, Fitbit’s revenue declined from $505 million dur- ing the first quarter of 2016 to $299 million during the first quarter of 2017. The accelerating collapse of Fit- bit’s competitive advantage and financial performance created a crisis for founders James Park and Eric Fried- Fitbit revolutionized the personal fitness activity in 2009 with the introduction of its Tracker wearable activity monitor. By 2016 the company was a hit in the marketplace with Fitbit devices becoming nearly ubiq uitous with fitness enthusiasts and health-conscious individuals wearing the devices and checking them throughout the day. The company’s sales of activity monitors had increased from 5,000 units in 2009 to 21.4 million connected health and fitness devices by year-end 2015. The company executed a sucecessful IPO (initial public offering) in 2015 that boosted liquidity by $4.1 billion and recorded revenues of $1.86 billion man, who were now faced with promptly establishing new strategic course to save the company. Background on Fitbit by the conclusion of its first year as a public company. Fitbit’s chief managers expected 2016 revenues in the range of $2.4 billion to $2.5 billion. However, on the last day of February 2016 the price of Fitbit stock plunged nearly 20 percent after the company announced that the sales and earnings in the first quarter would fall short of analysts’ forecasts. The company’s revenues increased by nearly 17 percent from 2016 to 2017 and Fitbit was founded in October 2007 by James Park (CEO) and Eric Friedman (CTO). The two men started the company after noticing the potential for using sen- sors in small wearable devices to track individuals physical activities. Before they had a prototype, Park and Friedman took a circuit board in a wooden box around to venture capitalists to raise money. In 2008, its number of devices sold increased from 21.4 million Park and Friedman addressed the TechCrunch 50 in 2015 to 22.3 million in 2016. However, the com Conference drumming up preorders for their product. Neither man had any manufacturing experience, so they traveled to Asia and sought out suppliers and a company to produce the device for them. Fitbit put its product named “Tracker” on the market at the end of 2009, and the company shipped approximately 5,000 units at that time. They had additional orders for 2,000 units on the books. pany’s cost of revenue increased from 51.5 percent in 2015 to 61 percent in 2016. The dramatic cost of revenue increases coupled with rapidly increasing oper- ating expenses resulted in a net loss of $102 million in 2016 for Fitbit. Fitbit’s financial troubles accelerated in 2017 with the company reporting revenue for the first quarter of 2017 of $299 million and a net loss of $60.1 million. While the company’s financial travail in 2016 was related primarily to increasing costs, the weak first quarter 2017 performance was driven by a decline Copyright2017 Rochelle R. Brunson and Marlene M. Reed. All rights reserved case 272 Part 2 Cases in Crafting and Executing Strategy A study in 2015 by Diaz et al, published in the The product Park and Friedman developed was called an “activity monitor” which was a wireless- enabled wearable technology device (see Exhibit 1) International Journal of Cardiology, investigated the Fitbit to see how reliable the device was, and whether it could be used to monitor patients physical activity The purpose of the Fitbit was to measure personal data such as number of steps walked. heart rate. quality of sleep, and steps climbed. The device could be clipped to one’s clothing and worn all the time- even when the wearer was asleep. Included with the Tracker was a wireless base station that could between clinic visits. The research indicated that the Fitbit One and Fitbit Flex reliably estimated step counts and energy expenditure during walking and run ning These researchers abso found that the hip-based Fitbit outperformed the Fitbit watch. Another study in 2015 by Cadmus-Bertram et al receive data from the Tracker and charge its battery. The base station uploaded data to the Fitbit website when connected to a computer. This feature allowed the consumer to have an overview of physical activity. track goals, keep food logs, and interact with friends. The use of the website was free for the consumer published in the American Joumal of Preventihe Medicine had essentially the same outcome as the Diaz study. Their study examined the Fitbit Tracker and website as a low-touch physical activity intervention. They were attempting to evaluate the feasibility of integrating the Fitbit Tracker and website into a physical activity Thereafter, the company developed a number intervention for postmenopausal women. Their con clusions were that the Fitbit was well accepted in their sample of women and was associated with increased physical activity at 16 weeks. In other words, merely wearing the Fitbit seemed to heighten the amount of physical exercise in which the women engaged. However, another study undertaken by Sasaki et al. in 2015 and reported in the Journal of Physical Activity and Health found that the Fitbit wireless activity tracker worn on the hip systematically underestimated the activity energy expended. These researchers suggested that the Fitbit management should consider refining the energy expenditure pre- diction algorithm to correct this consistent underes- timation of activity in order to maximize the physical of devices utilizing the Tracker technology. These devices are shown in Exhibit 2. Some of the later devices located the sensor technology in a watch that could be worn on the wrist (see Exhibit 3). On May 17, 2015, Fitbit filed for an IPO with the Securities and Exchange Commission with an NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) listing. The IPO brought in $4.1 billion. The stock was initially priced at $20 but shortly thereafter the shares were trading for $35. EXHIBIT 1 Fitbit Ultra activity benefits for weight management and other health-related concerns.” Mission of Fitbit According to Fitbit, “The mission of Ftbit is to empower and inspire you to live a healthier, more active life. We design products and experiences that fit seamlessly into your life so that you can achieve your health and fitness goals, whatever they may be.” The Activity Tracking Industry There were a number of companies that would be considered competitors of Fitbit in activity tracking- companies such as Garmin (originally producing GPS equipment for cars) and Under Armour (originally Source: Denis Kortunowitbit, Inc Fitbit, Inc., in 2017: Can It Revive Its Strategy and Reverse Mounting Losses? Case 4 273 EXHIBIT 2 Activity Tracker Devices Developed by Fitbit Name of Device Capabilities and Options Date First Unit Sold Device with a clip to fit on clothing Fitbit Tracker Sensed user movement Measured steps taken, distance walked, calories burned, floors dimbed In black and teal only 2008 Digital clock Stopwatch Altimeter that measured slope of floors “Chatter” messages that occurred when Ultra moved New colors of plum and blue Fitbit Ultra 2011 Fitbit Aria Wi-Fi smart scale Recognized users wearing Fitbit trackers Measured weight, body mass index, and percentage of body fat More vivid digital display Separate clip and charging cable Wireless sync dongle Used Bluetooth 4.0 2012 Fitbit One September 2012 Fitbit Zip Size of a quarter Tracked steps taken, distance traveled, and calories burned Included a disposable battery Lower price than other Fitbits September 2012 Fitbit Flex Worn on the wrist Tracked movement 24 hrs a day including sleep patterns May 2013 Fitbit Force LED display showing time and daily activity Tracked activities in real time Vibrating alarm October 2013 Fitbit Charge Replacement for Fitbit Force Wristband displayed caller ID October 2014 Fitbit Surge Similar to a smart watch Monitored heart rate Tracked pace, distance, and elevation using GPS October 2014 Fitbit Blaze Similar to a smart watch Focused on fitness first Colored touchscreen 2016 Exchangeable strap and frame Fitbit Alta HR PulsePure heart rate tracking: Sleep tracking: 7-day battery life Four colors and three sizes 2017 Source: Fitbit, Inc. website. producing undergarments for men). There were also companies such as Apple who produce smart watches that perform many of the same tasks as Fitbit’s devices. Another company entering the market late was Jawbone. This company was formed in 1999, and its consumer devices were Bluetooth headphones and speakers initially and later fitness trackers. With the increased competition in the activity tracking industry beginning in 2015, Jawbone dropped to seventh place in the second quarter from fifth place in the first quar- ter among makers of wearable tracking devices. Xiaomi, a Chinese company, shipped 15.7 million wearable activity trackers in 2016. That gave the com- pany a 15.4 percent global market share, which was second to Fitbit with Apple, Garmin, and Samsung behind the two leaders. In 2014, Xiaomi had shipped Cases in Crafting and Executing Strategy 274 Part 2 shipments growing by 16.9 percent when compared to 2015. The market was segmented between single- EXHIBIT 3 Fitbit Watch function products and smart wearables, many running third-party applications. An activity tracker indus- try observer noted, “Like any technology market the wearables market is changing. Basic wearables started out as single-purpose devices tracking foot steps and are morphing into multi-purpose wearable devices, fusing together multiple health and fitness capabilities and smartphone notifications.” New entrants to the industry such as Fossil cre- ated new fashion segments within the activity track- ing industry and helped generate consumer interest in hybrid watches and other fashion accessories with fitness tracking capabilities.. The innovations of another group of new entrants included non-wrist Source: Tom Emrich/Fibit, Inc. worn trackers such as earpieces and clothing items with activity tracking sensors. Such devices made up only I percent of industry sales in 2016 but reflected the continuing growth opportunities in the industry An analyst for IDC Mobile Device Trackers com- mented in mid-2017, “With the entrance of multiple 1.1 million units and garnered only 4 percent of the world market share. new vendors with strengths in different industries, the wearables market is expected to maintain a positive outlook, though much of this growth is coming from vendor push rather than consumer demand. “7 Exhibit 4 presents the shipments and market shares of the top five wearables vendors for 2014 through 2016. The presence of Apple in the market had been almost as noteworthy as Xiaomi’s. The Apple watch was first marketed in 2015, and in that year its market share went to 14.2 percent. This was despite a much higher price for the Apple product relative to either Fitbit or Xiaomi. For many years, neuroscientists had only the electroencephalogram, or EEG, to detect signals that carried different stages of sleep or brain power surges brought about by seizures. This was a very cumbersome process. Then, in 2007. Dr. Philip Low in San Diego invented the Sleep Parametric EEG Automated Recognition System (SPEARS) algo- rithm. This invention allowed physicians the ability to create a cluster map of brain activity with infor- mation that was gleaned from one electrode. This Problems for Fitbit Antenna There were early problems with the design of Fitbit. For one thing, the antenna did not work properly. In regard to the antenna problems, CEO James Park said, “In my hotel room I was thinking this is it. We literally took a piece of foam and put it on the circuit board to fix an antenna problem. advancement caught the attention of Tan Le, CEO of Emotiv (a company that manufactured EEG rigs for consumers). Le believes wearable activity devices may be the appropriate venue for this new medical breakthrough. This would open up far-reaching new uses for wearable activity tracking devices. Design Flaw The Fitbit Ultra had a permanently curved shape that allowed it to be clipped onto a piece of clothing. However, the plastic in the unit could not handle the strain at the looped end and would continually break Demand for wearable devices continuedtoincrease through 2016 with shipments growing to 33.9 million units in the fourth quarter of 2016 alone and annual When this occurred, Fitbit offered the consumer replacement or repair of the unit. 2 Case 4 Fitbi, Inc., in 2017: Can R Revive Its Strategy and Reverse Mounting Losses? 275 EXHIBIT 4 Top Five Wearables Vendors by Shipments and Market Share, 2014-2016 (units in millions) 2014 Unit Shipments 2014 Market Share 2015 Unit Shipments 2015 Market Share 2016 Unit Shipments 2016 Market Share Vendor 26.8% 220% Fitbit 10.9 37.9% 22.0 225 Xiaomi 4.0 % 0.0 % 12.0 14.7% 15.4% 1.1 15.7 00 Apple Garmin 11.6 14.2% 10.7 10.5% 20 7.1 % 58 7.0% 6.1 5.9% 9.2 % Samsung 2.7 3.2 39% 4.3% 4.4 Others 12.0 41.9% 27.4 33.4% 43.0 420% Total 28.8 100.0% 81.9 100.0% 102.4 100.0% Source: IDC Wordwide Quarterly Wearable Device Tracker February 23 2016: March 2, 2017 Allergic Reactions stated that users’ movements and health data were being tracked by the company and sold to third parties without their knowiedge. Schumer asked that the U.S. Federal Trade Commission undertake the regu lation of fitness trackers. In response to this charge, Fitbit suggested that it did not sell data to third parties and would be glad to have the opportunity to work with Senator Schumer on this issue From the beginning of the company, Fitbit was plagued by problems. When Fitbit added Fitbit Flex and Fitbit Force to its list of products, the company began receiving complaints that the watchband was irritating the skin of consumers. The irritation was discovered to be caused by allergic reactions to nickel, and the products were recalled in early 2014 As many as 9,000 customers were reportedly affected and the Force was replaced by a new model named Fitbit Charge, which was believed to be allergen free. Cost of Launching New Products In Fitbit’s Form 8-K filing on February 22. 2016, the company warned that the costs that were related to two new products would negatively affect first quarter earnings in 2016. They further stated that research and development would hurt operating mar- gins in 2016. The two new products that Fitbit sug- gested it would launch in 2016 were Fitbit Blaze and Unfortunately. customers continued to complain about allergic reactions to the new device as well. Too Much Information One of the greatest strengths of Fitbit from the very beginning was its website. By utilizing Bluetooth tech- nology, information from the Fitbit could be uploaded to the web in order to track energy expended and com- pare one’s performance with other Fitbit users. How- ever, the company discovered in 2011 that users who recorded their sexual activity (time spent, not activity) were sharing their information with the world unknow- ingly. Therefore, Fitbit realized that sharing all of a Fitbit Alpha, and these two products would incur very large manufacturing costs. In addition, Fitbit’s full-year research and development budget included the company’s Digital Health strategy.1 Financial Performance customer’s information with the world was not a good idea, and the company changed the website so that information posted by the users was private by default. Going into 2016, Fitbit management expected to record revenues of $2.4 billion to $2.5 billion as a result of new products and expansion into new geographic territories. In addition, the company stated that it expected gross margins to range from 48.5 to 49.0 percent. Fitbit also expected Privacy Issues U.S. Senator Chuck Schumer declared in August 2014 that Fitbit was a “privacy nightmare.” He further adjusted EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes. Case 4 Fitbit, Inc., in 2017: Can It Revive Its Strategy and Reverse Mounting Losses? 277 EXHIBIT 6 Fitbit, Inc., Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, 2015-2016 Assets December 31, 2016 December 31, 2015 Current assets $ 301,320 S 535.846 Cash and cash equivalents 404.693 Marketable securities 128,632 Accounts receivable, net 477,825 469,200 230,387 178,146 Inventories Prepaid expenses
IM.83 A distribution center for a sporting goods retailer places orders with manufacturers for a variety of items. Among these is a popular standard skateboard, targeted to first-time skate boarders. The regular price is $25, however, the manufacturer of this skateboard offers quantity discounts per the following discount schedule: Option Plan Quantity Discount A 1 1,199 0% 1,200 2,899 B 0.75% 2,900 C 2,00% The retailer pays $80 each time it places an order with the manufacturer. Holding costs are negligible (none) but they do earn 14% annual interest on all cash balances (meaning there will be an financial opportunity cost when they put cash into inventory). Annual demand is expected to be 8,000 units. Based on this information, sort each option plan from left to right by dragging the MOST preferred option plan to the left, and the LEAST preferred option plan to the right: Option Plan C Option Plan A Option Plan B For the MOST preferred option in the previous question, what will be the adjusted order quantity? (Display your answer to the nearest whole number.) Number What will be the annual holding cost for the MOST preferred option? (Display your answer to the nearest whole number.) Number What will be the total annual inventory cost for the MOST preferred option? (Display your answer to the nearest whole number.) Number
Risk Hazard Hazard description Assessor Industry scientist Likelihood Consequence Source Score Containment Leakage of failure 4 1 4 radioactive material contaminating groundwater, causing scientist cancer in humans NGO 4 5 20 potentially leading to fatalities. LC
1 on Annual demand for a product is 40,000 units. The ed out of product is used at a constant rate over the 365 days the company is open every year. The annual holding cost for the product is estimated to be $2.50 per unit and the cost of placing each order is $125.00. If the company orders according to the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula, then its total annual inventory cost for this product would be Select one: a. $2,500 ob. $5,000 h100 00n Select one: o a. $2,500 b. $5,000 c. $100,000 o d. $50,000
Question 2 Not yet Annual demand for a product is 40,000 units. The answered Marked out of product is used at a constant rate over the 365 1.00 P Flag days the company is open every year. The annual holding cost for the product is estimated to be question Fi $2.50 per unit and the cost of placing each order T is $125.00. If the company orders according to the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula, then the time between orders (order cycle time) is Select one: oa. 18.25 Days b. 73 Days o c. 23.25 Days d. 36.5 Days
estion 3 Annual demand for a product is 40,000 units. The t yet swered product is used at a constant rate over the 365 rked out of days the company is open every year. The annual Flag stion holding cost for the product is estimated to be $2.50 per unit and the cost of placing each order is $125.00. If the company orders according to the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula then orders are placed annually. Select one: a. 10 o b. 15 C. 5 d. 20
Question 4 Not vet The demand for an electronic component is answered Marked out of normally distributed with an average daily demand 1.00 P Flag question of 500 units and a standard deviation of 50. The lead time for the component is 9 days. If the company sets a reorder point of 4650 for this component, then its service level is approximately Select one: o a. 98 percent o b. 92 percent C. 50 percent d. 84 percent
Question 5 Not yet The demand for an electronic component is answered Marked out of normally distributed with an average daily demand 1.00 P Flag of 500 units and a standard deviation of 50. The question lead time for the component is 9 days. If a service level of 95% is desired, then the company’s safety stock for this component is approximately Select one: а. 150 b. 336 C. 247 d. 740
tion 6 et Annual demand for a product is 40,000 units. The ered ed out of product is used at a constant rate over the 365 ag days the company is open every year. The annual holding cost for the product is estimated to be $2.50 per unit and the cost of placing each order ion is $125.00. If the company orders according to the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula then its optimal order size for this product would be Select one: a. 20,000 units b. 4,000 units o c. 40,000 units d. 2,000 units
Get college assignment help at uniessay writers Question 7 lot yet A restaurant currently uses 62,500 boxes of nswered Marked out of napkins each year at a constant daily rate. The 00 Flag uestion cost to order napkins is $200.00 per order and the annual carrying cost for one box of napkins is $1.00. If the restaurant orders the economic order quantity, then the average inventory for napkins is Select one: a. 62,500 boxes b. 5,000 boxes c. 2,500 boxes d. 31,250 boxes
Question 8 Hot yet A product’s usage is normally distributed with a nswered Marked out of weekly average demand of 2,000 units and a 00 Flag weekly standard deviation of 125. The product’s uestion lead time is 4 weeks. Currently, the reorder point for this product is 8,200. If the company would like to have a service level of 95% for this product then Select one: o a. it must increase its safety stock by approximately 412 units. o b. it must decrease its safety stock by approximately 212 units. o c. it must increase its safety stock by approximately 212 units. Select one: o a. it must increase its safety stock by approximately 412 units. o b. it must decrease its safety stock by approximately 212 units. o c. it must increase its safety stock by approximately 212 units. o d. it must decrease its safety stock by approximately 412 units.
uestion 9 ot yet A restaurant currently uses 62,500 boxes of swered arked out of napkins each year at a constant daily rate. The 00 Flag uestion cost to order napkins is $200.00 per order and the annual carrying cost for one box of napkins is $1.00. If the restaurant orders the economic order quantity then the total annual inventory cost for napkins is Select one: a. $5,000 o b. $1,250 C. $2,500 d. $62,500
Question 10 Not yet A product’s usage is normally distributed with a weekly average demand of 2,000 units and a answered Marked out of .00 P Flag uestion weekly standard deviation of 125. The lead time for the product is 4 weeks. If the company would like to have a service level of 90% for this product, then the reorder point is approximately Select one: O a. 11,244 Units o b. 9,218 Units o C. 10,134 Units d. 8,320 Units
Question 11 A restaurant currently uses 62,500 boxes of Not yet answered napkins each year at a constant daily rate. If the Marked out of 1.00 cost to order napkins is $200.00 per order and the P Flag question annual carrying cost for one box of napkins is $1.00, then the economic order quantity for napkins is Select one: a. 62,500 b. 2,500 oc. 5,000
Question 12 Not yet A restaurant currently uses 62,500 boxes of answered Marked out of 1.00 napkins each year at a constant daily rate over the P Flag question 365 days that it is open. The cost to order napkins is $200.00 per order and the annual carrying cost for one box of napkins is $1.00. If the restaurant orders the economic order quantity then the time between orders (order cycle) is Select one: a. 75.3 days o b. 32.8 days o c. 29.2 d. 125 days
stion 13 Annual demand for a product is 40,000 units. The yet wered ked out of product is used at a constant rate over the 365 Flag tion days the company is open every year. The annual holding cost for the product is estimated to be $2.50 per unit and the cost of placing each order is $125.00. If the company orders according to the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula then its average inventory level for this product would be Select one: a. 10,000 Units b. 20,000 Units C. 2,500 Units d. 1,000 Units
Question 14 Not yet A restaurant currently uses 62,500 boxes of napkins each year at a constant daily rate. The cost to order napkins is $200.00 per order and the answered Marked out of 1.00 P Flag question annual carrying cost for one box of napkins is $1.00. If the restaurant orders the economic order quantity each time an order is placed, then orders are placed during the year. Select one: o a. 20 ob. 13 C. 25 d. 15
Map Podcast,Example Mind Ma eate a Mind Map using a tool such as Popplet which you do the following: ASsess three advantages and three disadvant Summarize five mediator qualifications Assess three advantages and three disadvanta Summarize five arbitrator qualifications ssess all categories in a 525- to 700-word Mind Map le Mind Map as Popplet. Mindmeister GoConqr. or a Microsoft Worda ree disadvantages of mediation in comparison to arbitration o fications hree disadvantages of arbitration ifications word Mind Map.
DiYanni, Making It Work-Ch 1 Paragraph 1 (1) When I first saw my newborn son, my words did not match my thought. (2) I said something like, “Oh, he’s beautiful,” but my thought was, “My god, will this turn into a human being?” (3) Of course, I knew intellectually that he already was a human being, but at the moment he looked more like a cross between that and a garden slug. (4) Over the next weeks, months, and years, the little slug’s mother and I watched in amazement as he grew not only to look increasingly human but also to do the things that humans everywhere do. (Peter Gray, Psychology) What is the connection between sentence 1 and sentence 2? a. There is no connection. b. Sentence 2 gives the specific words and thought mentioned in sentence 1. c. Sentence 2 tells the second thing the writer said and thought after seeing his newborn son. d. Sentence 2 contradicts sentence 1 by showing that the writer’s words and thought really do match each other. How does the phrase “in amazement” in sentence 4 connect with sentences 1, 2, and 3? a. The writer’s wife is amazed at the ability of human beings to say one thing and think another. b. The writer is amazed that he is married to a “little slug’s mother.” c. The writer and his wife are amazed that their child, who looked somewhat inhuman at birth, developed into a real human being. d. There is no connection, and the writer is wrong to put such an emotional word as amazement into a college textbook on psychology. Paragraph 2 (1) To the casual observer, the natural world may seem chaotic and without pattern or organization. (2) The placement of one tree with respect to another in a woodlot, the circuitous flight of a passing butterfly, or the cacophony of night sounds that fills the forest in springtime may seem random and without explanation. (3) But to the naturalist, the natural world is full of shape and interconnections. (Robert E. Ricklefs and Gary L. Miller, Ecology) Sentence 2 gives specific examples (the placement of trees, the flight of a butterfly, the noise in a forest at night) of what general idea in sentence 1? a. The specific examples explain what is meant by “the casual observer.” b. The specific examples explain what is meant by “the natural world.” c. The specific examples illustrate things that to the casual observer have no pattern or organization. d. The specific examples illustrate things that to the casual observer have a clear pattern and organization. One word in sentence 3 indicates that a contrast or a shift is coming—a change to something different. What is that word? a. but b. naturalist c. world d. interconnections Paragraph 3 (1) For the Navajo people, history began when their ancestors emerged from under the earth; for the Iroquois, the story of their Nations began when people fell from the sky. (2) However, most anthropologists and historians believe that the first people to live in the Western Hemisphere were migrants from Asia. (3) Some might have come by water, but most probably came by land. . . . (James A. Henretta, David Brody, and Lynn Dumenil, America: A Concise History) What is the connection between sentence 1 and sentence 2? a. There is no connection. b. Native American tribes c. anthropologists and historians d. the history of people in the Western Hemisphere To whom do the words some and most in sentence 3 refer? a. migrants from Asia b. the Navajo people c. the Iroquois d. all of the above Paragraph 4 Communication has proved to be a rather slippery term. Since the time of Aristotle, scholars have offered various definitions of the term. All of the definitions, however, have been incomplete because they have failed to capture the richness and complexity of the communication experience. In 1976, Dance and Larson listed over 100 definitions of communication published in the previous 20 years. If we attempted such a list today, we would likely double that number. (Dan O’Hair et al., Competent Communication) You could make several predictions about where the authors are going with this paragraph. Which of the following is not an appropriate prediction? a. The authors will look at various definitions of communication. b. The authors will discuss specific ways in which the definitions of communication have been incomplete. c. The authors will explore the richness and complexity of the communication experience. d. The authors will find fault with Dance and Larson for not doubling their list of 100 definitions of communication. What is the significance of the phrase “since the time of Aristotle” (sentence 2) in this paragraph? a. Only the ancient Greeks discussed the definition of communication. b. Scholars have tried to define communication for a long time. c. Aristotle devoted his life to defining communication. d. The study of communication began in the twentieth century. Paragraph 5 The kinds of hands-on knowledge of music that is necessary for a music professional—for a composer or a performer—is of no special use to you as a nonprofessional listener. But an acquaintance with musical concepts and musical terms can be useful, by helping you grasp more clearly what you already hear in music. Analyzing things, pinpointing things, even simply using the right names for things all make us more actively aware of them. Sometimes, too, this process of analyzing, pinpointing, and naming can actually assist listening. We become more alert, as it were, to aspects of music when they have been pointed out. And sharper awareness contributes to greater appreciation of music, and of the other arts as well. (Joseph Kerman and Gary Tomlinson, Listen) Which of the following is not likely to appear in the book Listen? a. hands-on music information for composers b. musical terms for nonprofessional listeners c. analyses of musical works d. the pinpointing and naming of various aspects of music Which inference is most likely, based on the paragraph? a. The authors do not approve of composers and performers. b. The authors do not approve of nonprofessional listeners. c. The authors appreciate the other arts, in addition to music. d. The authors appreciate music but not the other arts. Paragraph 6 The communication climate of an organization also is influenced by the communication channels that an organization utilizes. Internal channels are those within the organization. External channels are those outside the organization, for example, with the organization’s various publics. An organization must use effectively both internal channels and external channels. (Roy Berko, Andrew Wolvin, and Rebecca Ray, Business Communication in a Changing World) Which question is not appropriate to ask yourself after reading this paragraph? a. Do I understand the difference between internal and external channels of communication? b. Can I describe in my own words what the authors mean by “the communication climate of an organization”? c. Can I explain why most organizations are better off without internal and external channels of communication? d. Can I give an example of an internal and an external channel of communication? Which statement is true, according to the paragraph? a. An organization’s most important channel of communication is with its various publics. b. An organization has to use both internal and external channels of communication well. c. Internal channels of communication are more important than external channels. d. External channels of communication are more important than internal channels. Paragraph 7 One of psychology’s oldest findings is that spaced practice promotes better retention than massed practice. You’ll remember material better if you space your time over several study periods—perhaps one hour a day, six days a week—rather than cram it into one long study blitz. Spacing your study sessions requires a disciplined approach to managing your time. For example, rather than trying to read a whole chapter in a single sitting, read just one of the chapter’s main sections and then turn to something else. (David G. Myers, Psychology) Which is the best question to ask yourself after you finish reading this paragraph? a. What is psychology’s oldest finding? b. For my next test, should I try spacing out my study time rather than cramming? c. What are other disciplined approaches to managing time? d. Can I read more than one chapter in a single sitting? In the first sentence of the paragraph, what is the meaning of the phrase “better retention”? a. organizing better b. remembering better c. studying better d. managing time better Paragraph 8 As you begin this class in an age when electronic communication has taken center stage, you may be wondering if public speaking is still a relevant, let alone important, form of communication. After all, we now have television, radio, e-mail, pagers, personal digital assistants, cellular phones, and electronic bulletin boards. Isn’t it rather low-tech to stand “unarmed” in front of an audience and simply talk? (Dan O’Hair and Rob Stewart, with Hannah Rubenstein, Public Speaking) Which inference is most appropriate to make after reading this paragraph? a. The authors believe that public speaking is an important form of communication. b. The authors believe that public speaking is not an important form of communication. c. The authors believe that public speaking used to be an important form of communication but that high-tech forms have replaced it. d. The authors believe that public speaking was never an important form of communication. Which statement is not implied by the word unarmed in quotation marks in the last sentence of the paragraph? a. Public speakers have to present themselves and their ideas directly, as they are. b. Public speakers have no artificial defenses; they have to put themselves on the line. c. Public speakers do not protect themselves in the same way as people who use high-tech communication do. d. Public speakers do not carry guns or knives, nor do they wear bulletproof vests. Paragraph 9 One day a four-and-a-half-year-old named Emily called to her parents, “Look. I made a word! I spelled SIR with my blocks.” Her parents looked down and saw S-G-H-Y-R. They had an important decision to make in a matter of seconds. Emily had shown that she understood the purpose of the written word. She knew that words have meaning, letters make words, and at least some of those letters correspond with the sounds of words. She wanted to write and had taken the risk of trying it on her own. Her parents had two choices. They could point out all that she knew: how to place letters from left to right and how to sound out the first and last letters. Or they could say, “That’s not how you spell sir.” In short, they could encourage her to keep trying or convince her, and themselves, that she wasn’t ready to write. (Donald Graves and Virginia Stuart, Write from the Start) What can you infer that the authors believe the parents should do? a. explain to Emily how to spell sir correctly b. tell Emily that she is not yet ready to write c. praise Emily and encourage her to keep trying d. tell Emily what a cute girl she is Which statement is not true of this paragraph? a. The authors want to make readers appreciate how much Emily, in fact, knows about writing and spelling. b. The authors want to make parents aware of the importance of their reactions to their children’s spelling mistakes. c. The authors want to show that a four-and-a-half-year-old should not be trying to spell words with blocks. d. This paragraph will probably be followed by a discussion about each of the two possible decisions. Paragraph 10 At midnight on December 31, 1999, massive displays of fireworks exploded in many places on Earth as people celebrated a new millennium—the passage from one thousand-year time frame into the next—and the advent of the year 2000. One such millennial display took place above the Egyptian pyramids. (William K. Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology) Which statement is the least likely prediction about this paragraph? a. The paragraph could be an introduction to a discussion of the Egyptian pyramids. b. The paragraph could be the beginning of a story about the fireworks display above the Egyptian pyramids at midnight on December 31, 1999. c. The paragraph could begin a description of types of celebrations that have marked the passage from one thousand-year time frame to another. d. The paragraph could lead into a discussion of failures and successes of various types of technology on January 1, 2000. What is the meaning of the phrase “millennial display” in the last sentence of the paragraph? a. a fireworks presentation b. a show marking a thousand-year celebration c. an exhibit of fireworks above the Egyptian pyramids d. a very old holiday
Problem 10-14 (algorithmic) Question Help A new storm drainage system must be constructed right away to reduce periodic flooding that occurs in a city that is in a valley. Five mutually exclusive designs have been proposed, and their present worth (in thousands of dollars) of costs and benefits are the following. a. Which system has the greatest B-C ratio? b. Which system has the largest incremental B-C ratio (based on differences between alternatives)? c. Which system should be chosen? System 1 2 3 5 $10,000 PW of $800 $13,000 $4,000 $4,000 costs PW of 16,000 7,000 23,000 7,000 13,000 benefits wo decimal places.) System (Round to a. has the greatest B-C ratio, which is
The post Question: The Figure Below Shows A Cognitive Map Capturing Understanding Of The Drivers Of Algal Blooms In An Inland River. The System Could Also Be Described Using A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) Flow Moderate Weak Nutrients Turbidity -moderate Strong -strong Algal Bloom (a) What Steps Are Required To Convert This Cognitive Map Into A BBN? (five Marks) appeared first on uniessay writers.